Generic Drug Name: Tepoxalin
Other Common Names: Zubrin
Tepoxalin is a type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that provides COX1/COX2 and LOX inhibition to treat inflammation and pain associated with osteoarthritis in dogs. It is generally given at the lowest possible effective dose for the remainder of life to manage pain and other symptoms.
Tepoxalin is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in dogs. At this time, the drug is not for use in cats.
Tepoxalin may cause serious side effects in some animals, including intestinal and stomach ulcers, intestinal bleeding, vomiting, dark or tarry stools, loss of appetite, jaundice, and peritonitis. When extreme, some of these side effects are life threatening. If any such side effects develop, the drug should be stopped immediately and a veterinarian should be consulted. Use of the drug may also result in blood clotting abnormalities, liver damage, or kidney damage. These effects are the same as those caused by other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications.
Other side effects associated with use include lethargy, seizures, shedding, pale gums, incoordination, and behavioral changes.
Tepoxalin is not for use in animals with a history of inflammation, bleeding, or perforation of the intestinal mucosa or stomach wall. Animals suffering from dehydration or low blood pressure should also avoid using this medication. Caution is needed when using tepoxalin in animals with diabetes mellitus, liver disease, heart failure, kidney disease, or a history of adverse reactions to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Because it is not known if tepoxalin is safe for use in pregnant, lactating, or breeding animals, its use should be avoided in these groups. The drug should not be used in dogs less than 6 months of age. Tepoxalin is known to interact with other medications and supplements, including corticosteroids, aspirin, methotrexate, enalapril, phenylpropanolamine, phenobarbital, and other NSAIDs. When tepoxalin is used in combination with aspirin, corticosteroids, or phenylbutazone, the potential for ulcer development increases.
Tepoxalin should not be used in animals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to the drug. Overdose of tepoxalin may cause vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea, dark stools, increased urination, jaundice, lethargy, increased thirst, bloody stools, pale gums, increased respiration, or incoordination. Any known or suspected overdose should be reported to a veterinarian right away. An overdose of this medication is potentially fatal and should be considered an emergency.
Tepoxalin should be stored in its original packaging, at room temperature, and away from children and animals. It should be kept away moisture and should not be stored in the bathroom or above the kitchen sink.
Tepoxalin is available as rapidly-disintegrating tablets in strengths of 30 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg.
As an anti-inflammatory, tepoxalin is typically dosed at 4.5 mg/lb (10 mg/kg) once daily for up to four weeks. In some cases, a one-time starting dose of 9.1 mg/lb (20 mg/kg) is used, followed by the once daily dosage of 4.5 mg/lb. To prevent dogs from spitting out the rapidly-disintegrating tablets, the mouth should be held closed for 4 to 5 seconds after dosing. The drug should be given with food or within 2 hours of eating.
Doses may vary in different species, when the drug is given by a different route or concurrently with other medications, and with regards to a patient's age, breed, and health status. A veterinarian's dosing instructions and/or those printed on the medication label should be followed closely.
If a dose of tepoxalin is missed, it should be given as soon as possible. If it is almost time for the next dose, the missed dose should be skipped and the normal schedule resumed. Two doses of this medication should not be given at once.